Michelina Miedema

Spring Trimester 2020 

EDU 580: Inquiry to Practice


Annotated Bibliography - Lesson Study Cycle 3

Annotated Bibliography - Cycle 3

Michelina Miedema


Dealva, T. (2020, April). Personal interview.


What do you know about intrinsic motivation? “Intrinsic motivation is key in developing student self esteem and productivity. It allows students to work, create, invent, and produce from personal motivation rather than tangible rewards, prizes, or competitions, etc.”


Do you consider intrinsic motivation in your lesson planning? If so, in what ways? “Yes, I consider intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in lesson planning for a variety of classes and ages. Building classroom community is key to intrinsic motivation, ownership, as well as voice and choice in learning and showing work, connecting projects to real world ideas, and giving students inspiration to take , and tapping into their curiosities.”


What do you know about rewards in regards to intrinsic motivation?

“Rewards of intrinsic motivation are positive feedback from both teachers, peers, and the community, feeling inspired by projects of interest, co-creating expectations and rubrics, free-choice cooperative learning groups, individual sharing time/ time to learn about each student and teacher, flexible seating, classroom choice for celebrations, mystery readers, voting and/or consensus, and co-organizing events and celebrations.”


Do you think that rewards are necessary in the classroom setting?

“That's a tough one. I think it depends on the classroom, age, and duration of the classroom setting, and if there are enough supports in the classroom to help with individual needs. I also think homeroom classroom teaching is different from exploratory teaching, which can be complex to build deep classroom community for a short period of time while trying to complete specific learning objectives. If every teacher has a different way of conducting norms and expectations, and supports are not available, pure intrinsic motivation can be challenging in an exploratory setting. I have ran most of my self-contained classrooms with only intrinsic motivation, however, I have also had classes that needed a little extrinsic motivation at the beginning of the year, especially when I did not have assistants or academic coaches, and then I weaned off to solely intrinsic motivation. “


If so, how are they beneficial or detrimental?

“There are many more benefits of intrinsic motivation than extrinsic, and pure extrinsic motivation has shown so many long-term negative outcomes. Over praise, or rewarding production (a product) rather than a process, can lead to students having a fixed-mindset, scared to try new things or make mistakes.”



Jablon, J., & Wilkinson, M. (2006). Using Engagement Strategies to Facilitate Children's Learning and Success. YC Young Children, 61(2), 12-16.


This article defines engagement and why it is important to a child’s success as a learner. (12) According to Jablon, engagement in the classroom can be looked at as both psychological and behavior characteristics. Psychologically engaged learners look like “intrinsically motivated by curiosity, interest, and enjoyment and are likely to want to achieve their own intellectual or personal goals.” (12)  The article gives an example of a third grade class having a full class discussion on what they already know about dictionaries, then they are told they will work in small groups to study and make observations about dictionaries. They are each given a chart paper to get started. Students rush off to their areas to get started. The class is busy with sounds of communication, laughter and argument. According to Jablon, engagement is “active” students are listening and absorbing information, they are  interested in completing  the task and find some “inherent value” in what they are working on. An engaged student does not just do the work to have it finished, they do it with “enthusiasm and diligence.” 


Research shows that disengagement increases as children go on to higher grades. They might become less interested in class activities and assignments and struggle with directions given from a teacher.  This article shares that this can begin as early as the third grade. These students are at higher risk for dropping out of school therefore, increasing engagement is an important part to a child’s success in school.In order to increase engagement, the teacher must create a “climate of engagement in the classroom to…. 1.Focus children on learning 2. support learning specific skills and concepts, 3. provide children positive associations with learning. (13)


Kearney, S., & Jasmine, Joanne. (2018). Using Visual Activity Schedules to Follow Multi-Step Directions to Reduce Off-task Behaviors and Prompt Dependence of Preschool Children, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.


This study explains the power of visual schedules for elementary school students. According to this research a visual schedule can allow a child to know where they are supposed to be and when they are supposed to be there. It also establishes a predictable environment where a child can feel safe and supported.  Most importantly a visual schedule can provide motivation by guiding a child to be aware of expectations and activities. (13)  During a 5 week study she introduced visual schedules to two students, one with autism and one with down syndrome. She collected data on schedules and off task behavior. During the first week, while the students were still learning how to navigate their visual schedules, the number of tallies for off task behavior was high. Initially the tallies fluctuated, but then began to decrease.  The use of visual schedules indicated success in decreasing off task behaviors and prompt dependence, the student with autism was able to stay on task and complete work, while the student with down syndrome took longer to get used to using the visual schedule. (33) 


Kieran, L., & Anderson, C. (2019). Connecting Universal Design for Learning With Culturally Responsive Teaching. Education and Urban Society, 51(9), 1202-1216.


This article explains Universal Design for Learning (UDL), Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT), and how the two practices connect.  UDL has given educators a  guide line to support all types of learners. According to Kieran and Anderson, UDL has three principles : 1. Provide multiple means of representation 2. Provide multiple means of action and expression 3. Provide multiple means of engagement. In order for teachers to support their students, they need to be aware of their skills and background knowledge. UDL encourages teachers to consider the needs of their students and be aware of  “barriers” that students may have when accessing the lesson. CRT encourages teachers  to design lessons from the “perspective of students’ diversity as strengths rather than deficits.” (Kieran Anderson) In order to meet the needs of all learners, teachers need to differentiate instruction, and be aware of student’s individual backgrounds and experiences. The cultural background of a student is what shapes them as a learner, and having an understanding of their background is important particularly for groups that have been “historically oppressed and marginalized.”. (1203)


According to the article, Both UDL and CRT “consider ways in which traditional instructional approaches result in barriers to learning for “non-traditional” students.” Both UDL and CRT encourage teachers to “proactively consider educational approaches that should result in increased student engagement and learning”  (1204) . In UDL and CRT the teachers see a students’ differences as assets rather than deficits. UDL and CRT consider the backgrounds and needs of students from a strength based perspective. According to Kieren and Anderson, students need to feel safe in order to learn. When teachers adopt these pedagogical practices into their classrooms, they provide support that allow students to access content, regardless of the type of learner that they are. 


Lemos, M., & Veríssimo, L. (2014). The Relationships between Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Achievement, Along Elementary School. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112(C), 930-938.


This article compared Intrinsic Motivation (IM) and Extrinsic Motivation (EM) on a group of 200 students in portugal. The goal of this study was to ‘analyse IM and EM as two independent forms of motivation or, alternatively, as two opposite poles of a continuum ranging from a poor (extrinsic) to a good (intrinsic) form of motivation.’ (935) They found that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can be ‘viewed as mostly independent constructs.’ (934) They showed different correlation in regards to school performance, notably in different age groups. For younger students, extrinsic motivation can work hand in hand with intrinsic motivation.  In later elementary school, extrinsic motivation can hinder a student’s academic achievement. (936)


Price, J. (2020, April). Personal interview.


What are some engagement strategies that you use in your classroom?

“As a kindergarten teacher, I'm constantly weaving in strategies that will keep my kids engaged! I do a lot of teaching in short bursts, 10-20 minutes max (now that it's the end of the school year ...although this is different now that we're doing distance learning..) with movement breaks throughout. I give kids opportunity to move during instruction, and chances to move during work time. Making sure that their base need of being able to move and get energy out is one of the best ways to keep kids engaged! I also love to give my kids voice and choice in almost everything we do, once our routines and expectations are established. Doing so gives them ownership and a sense of responsibility to do the right thing, to be an active learner. “


Why do you think that engaging your student is important? 

“Kids need to be engaged or they won't be active learners! If they don't have their basic needs met (able to release energy, able to play, time to rest, snack, etc.), they won't be able to focus on more rigorous academic tasks like reading, writing, math.”


Do you notice a difference in your student’s learning when they are engaged?

“Absolutely. If they're engaged, they're excited, they ask questions, they're curious, they're motivated to do more and learn more. If they're not engaged, they tune out and learning doesn't happen. “


Can you engage students without knowing their interests?

“I think you can to a point. It's safe to say that there are topics that most kids are generally interested in, but the more you can intertwine the kids specific interests, the higher their engagement. The higher the engagement, the easier it will be for them to learn!”